Design an automatic irrigation system

Design an automatic irrigation system

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How to design a system of automatic irrigation: the evaluations, the main materials and all the information to design a system ofautomatic irrigationfor the garden.

When designing a system ofautomatic irrigationgarden (or vegetable garden), the area to be irrigated must be divided into different sectors based on the water needs required by the vegetation. Each zone can have not only different programming times, but also jet angle, average flow rate, operating time and different type of sprinkler. On the market there are dynamic sprinklers, static sprinklers and drip or dripline sprinklers.

Automatic irrigation, the different systems

  • Dynamic underground sprinklers
    Dynamic sprinklers to be installed underground in the garden require a minimum pressure of 1.5 bar for their operation even if the optimal water pressure is 2.5 bar.
  • Static sprinklers
    Static sprinklers are fixed and require a minimum pressure of one bar, also in this case the optimal water pressure is 2.5 bar, therefore, the static sprinklers can share the same pressure regulator as the dynamic sprinklers.
  • Dripline sprinklers
    The dripline requires a minimum pressure of 0.5 bar but cannot go beyond 3.5 bar.

While dynamic and static sprinklers can withstand different pressures, even very high (up to 5 or 6 bar), the pressure for the dripline must never exceed 3.5 bar, for this reason, when inserting a dripline sprinkler (perhaps for theautomatic irrigation of hedges and flower beds) you will need to provide a small pressure reducer to be placed at the beginning of the pipe of the relevant sector.

In a system ofautomatic irrigation, all the sprinklers must be spaced apart in order to distribute the water evenly over the entire surface of the garden. When designing a system ofautomatic irrigationthere are a few rules, in general we can tell you that only one sprinkler should be placed in the corners while along the perimeter it is better to place two that cross their range of action.

Automatic irrigation, the necessary components

In addition to the sprinklers and the pressure regulator for the dripline, a system ofautomatic irrigationit must be equipped with all the connections to reach the various areas of the garden and other fundamental components, such as:

  • Automatic drainage valves
    When irrigation stops and the pressure decreases, a water drain is created near the sprinkler nozzle. To avoid this runoff, the pipes in the areas that have a static and dynamic sprinkler must be equipped with special drainage valves. The valves not only serve to avoid small stagnations or puddles near the sprinkler, they are indispensable in cold climates in order to prevent the water contained in the sprinkler body and in the proximal piping from freezing causing damage to the irrigation system.
  • Rain sensor
    A rain sensor is needed to stop the preset programming of theautomatic irrigationin case of rain. The programming restarts when the water collected by the sensor evaporates and therefore the sensor is sure that the ground is dry.
  • Tap for the garden
    For the garden area it is important to have a two-way tap, one for the classic pump that can be used for cleaning and the other for a rubber hose useful for watering any extra pots.
  • Electronic programmer
    An irrigation timer, indispensable for programming operating times and water administration in the various sectors.

It may interest you, the photos ofDIY automatic irrigation kit